The wish of every parent is to give birth to a child that is healthy and capable of leading a life free of medical complications or diseases. And while that is not entirely possible in the natural order of things, most parents would like the option of knowing at least what to expect as far as their child’s future health is concerned. PGD PGS Treatment is a biopsy procedure used during the IVF process if required.
Similar to prenatal diagnosis in principle, these twin tests can tell you a lot of things about an embryo that is created through IVF and before it’s transferred to the uterus. Owing to a rationalization of the IVF treatment cost in India, more and more parents are opting for these two tests to ensure the child that is born is free of debilitating genetic conditions.
What is PGS?
Preimplantation genetic screening is a genetic screening procedure that is used to confirm if an embryo’s cells have the necessary number of chromosomes. Human beings have 23 pairs of chromosomes. A too high or too low chromosomal count is an example of chromosomal abnormalities and is among the most prominent causes of miscarriages and failed embryo implantation. The likelihood of these abnormalities manifesting also increases as the woman’s eggs get older. PGS IVF itself doesn’t test for specific diseases. However, the presence of an extra chromosome 21 leads to Down syndrome and PGS is capable of detecting that.
PGS testing is recommended in the following situations,
- The female partner is 36 years or older.
- The couple wants to go for a single embryo transfer.
- The couple has a history of recurrent miscarriage (pregnancy loss).
- The intending couple has a history of implantation failure/failed IVF.
PGS increases the chances of success for an IVF cycle as it allows to transfer only the healthiest embryos. However, the test requires at least 5 to 6 embryos. It can be a challenging task for women over 36 years. PGS itself is an extra step in the IVF process and is performed before the embryos are placed inside the uterus. IVF with PGS success rates is notably higher than an IVF procedure without PGS.
What is PGD?
Preimplantation genetic diagnosis is a kind of genetic screening procedure that detects the presence of certain disease-causing genes. PGD testing is ideal for couples who have a family history of genetic diseases(s) & want to avoid passing on the same to their future child. In certain cases, either one or both parents might just be carrying the disease-causing genes. In that scenario, any of them might not be suffering from the disease itself.
PGD genetic testing is used to test for,
- Translocations of genes (swapping of chromosomal materials or other kinds of structural alterations). Genetic translocation can lead to birth defects, miscarriage or even mental retardation.
- Marfan syndrome.
- Huntington disease.
- Recessive genetic diseases like Tay-Sachs and cystic fibrosis.
- Genetic diseases, that are borne by the chromosome, like Duchenne muscular dystrophy and haemophilia.
- Abnormalities in the number of chromosomes.
Just like PGS, PGD too is performed as an additional step in the IVF treatment. It is done right before the embryo is transferred into the womb of the mother. PGD success rates are more visible among women over the age of 36 years and in IVF treatment. Moreover, PGD IVF is notably more complex than PGS IVF as it tests for individual genes.
Dr Pranay Shah
Dr. Divyesh Bhalodia
Dr. Dhruti Maheshwari
Who Should Go for PGS/PGD?
Anyone can choose to undergo these twin tests. However, if any partner has a family history of active genetic diseases, undergoing these tests is strongly recommended.
PGS treatment in India is common & widely available. PGD in India is becoming quite popular with couples who want to rule out genetic abnormalities.
The diagnoses are also popular with those going the surrogate route. Any reputed and legally accredited surrogacy hospital in India offers these tests before implanting the embryo into the womb of the surrogate.
Cost of both tests is over and above the IVF treatment cost. Still, they are invaluable in the larger scheme of things. As a best IVF Center in India 2018, Wellspring offers PGS PGD treatment for indicated patients.